By Peter W.B. Phillips, Chika B. Onwuekwe
This quantity explores the criminal, financial and political debate over highbrow estate rights for standard wisdom and genetic assets, reading conception and perform of entry and advantages sharing worldwide. The ebook investigates present flashpoints — the conflict among Monsanto and Percy Schmeiser over farmers’ rights; disputes over coexistence of genetically transformed and natural produce; and possession and keep an eye on of human genetic fabrics kept in human gene banks round the world.
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Additional resources for Accessing and Sharing the Benefits of the Genomics Revolution
With respect to such PGRs and the indigenous knowledge on their uses, the relationship is more of communal ownership and not common property or common heritage of humankind (RAFI, 1996). Battiste and Henderson (2000) also describe the nature of this system of communal ownership and relationship with respect to indigenous knowledge. They used the concept of trusteeship to illustrate the responsibility of those entrusted with the management and overseeing of communal resources. According to them: Indigenous knowledge is ordinarily a communal right and is associated with a family, clan, tribe, or other kinship group.
This ignorance, he argues, is why PGRs are still regarded as part of the commons thereby denying communities that sustain these resources through biodiversity activities any benefit from the propertization of elite germplasm developed in Western laboratories from local cultivars (PGRs). Besides being inequitable, he believes the approach is a “cloak for reality” and a demonstration of Western superiority that belittles other cultures and property ownership structures that are not as individualistically driven.
This IDEOLOGY OF THE COMMONS AND PROPERTY RIGHTS 41 position emphasizes the benefits of patents to innovators. Phillips and Khachatourians concur with Evenson when they stated, “ultimately, the challenge of examining innovation is in its quantification for its contributing value to rapidly evolving user needs and significantly better return on investment” (Phillips and Khachatourians, 2001). Similarly the description of Morck and Yeung (2001) on what “economists know, suspect and guess about the underlying determinants of the pace of innovators” buttresses this view.
Accessing and Sharing the Benefits of the Genomics Revolution by Peter W.B. Phillips, Chika B. Onwuekwe