By J M Cushing; Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences
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Additional info for An introduction to structured population dynamics
The La Mesa surface has member surfaces of three ages (table 2-1): lower and upper La Mesa (Gile 1967) and JER La Mesa (Gile 2002). Lower La Mesa is highly signiﬁcant because its soils illustrate the morphological transition from the plugged stage III horizon to initial development of the stage IV horizon in nongravelly materials (Gile et al. 1981). In contrast, most Table 2-1. Geomorphic surfaces and stages of carbonate accumulation in soils of the Desert Project, JER, and CDRRC. P. )–1,000 II I I 1,100–2,100 I I I 2,200–7,000 Leasburg Isaacs’ ranch II II,III Latest Pleistocene (10,000–15,000) Butterﬁeld Baylor III III Late Pleistocene (15,000–100,000) Picacho Jornada II III III, IV Late to Middle Pleistocene (100,000– 250,000) III IV Late to middle Pleistocene (250,000– 500,000) III IV Late to middle Pleistocene (500,000– 700,000) IV (Ͼ 700,000) Petts tank Tortugas Jornada I Jornada I Jornada I Don˜a Ana Lower La Mesa Lower La Mesa III,IV Middle Pleistocene (780,000) JER La Mesa JER La Mesa IV,V Middle Pleistocene to late Pliocene (780,000–2,000,000) Upper La Mesa Upper La Mesa V Late Pliocene (2,000,000– 2,500,000) 2 Geomorphic surfaces after Ruhe (1967), Hawley and Kottlowski (1969), Gile et al.
1975). Also related to eruption of the Emory caldera is the Kneeling Nun tuff, which spilled out of the erupting caldera and spread for tens to hundreds of kilometers across the surrounding countryside. Outﬂow sheets of ash ﬂow tuff from other calderas in southern New Mexico were preserved, along with sedimentary rocks, in the Goodsight–Cedar Hills half graben located west of the Jornada area (Mack et al. 1994a). Simultaneous with development of the Oligocene calderas were eruptions of basalt and basaltic andesite lava ﬂows.
Quaternary Geology Entrenchment of Ancestral Rio Grande Various models have explained the entrenchment of the Rio Grande and the establishment of a through-ﬂowing drainage from southern Colorado to the Gulf of Mexico. In one model, entrenchment is thought to have occurred in the middle Pleistocene when large lakes in northern Mexico, southern New Mexico, and west Texas, which were fed by the Ancestral Rio Grande, spilled over a topographically low area near El Paso (Kottlowski 1953) or at the southeast end of the Hueco bolson (Seager et al.
An introduction to structured population dynamics by J M Cushing; Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences