By Rajni Hatti-Kaul
A mix of polymers, or one polymer and a salt, in an aqueous medium separates into levels: this phenomenon turns out to be useful in biotechn- ogy for product separations. Separation of organic molecules and debris in those aqueous two-phase platforms (ATPS) was once initiated over forty years in the past by means of P.-Å. Albertsson, and later proved to be of massive application in biochemical and phone organic learn. a lift within the program of ATPS was once obvious whilst difficulties of separations in biotechnology tactics have been encountered. Its simplicity, biocompatibility, and amenability to effortless scaleup operations make using ATPS very appealing for large-scale bioseparations. regardless of the benefits ATPS enjoys over different separation innovations, the applying of two-phase platforms has for a very long time been constrained to chose labora- ries. fresh years have, besides the fact that, proven a development within which expanding numbers of researchers hire two-phase partitioning innovations in either uncomplicated and utilized examine.
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Additional info for Aqueous Two-Phase Systems: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Biotechnology)
Temperature control: Because precise temperature control would be difficult and would require an elaborate chamber, we utilize a laboratory that is thermally controlled to better than ±1°C over the duration of an experiment. If necessary, the temperature can be measured with a thermistor immersed in the less dense phase. Pycnometer: Required to measure phase densities. Phase chemicals: Phase systems are made up as described elsewhere in this volume. Before they are utilized for contact angle and/or interfacial tension measurements they must be carefully equilibrated at the temperature of the experiment.
Apparatus: Voltages are measured on a high impedance (* 1010 1) millivoltmeter (most Digital Voltmeters have the required input characteristics). Glass microcapillaries are pulled with an electrode puller to an internal tip diameter of about 30 µm. These instruments, for instance those made by David Knopf Instruments (Tujunga, CA) are commonly found in electrophysiology laboratories. 2. Pure silver plates 1 cm 2 square each are used for the reversible electrodes. 3. Xylene. 4. Acetone. 5. 5 N HNO3.
3. The two phase system must be brought to good thermal equilibrium with the room or container in which the measurements are to be made. The upper and lower phases are separated and the volume around the interface discarded. If necessary the upper phase may be centrifuged briefly to remove all lower phase droplets (see Note 2). 4. The piece of glass slide is placed in the bottom of the chamber with forceps. Lower phase is added to the syringe. 5. Using the micromanipulator, the syringe is positioned over one end of the glass piece.
Aqueous Two-Phase Systems: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Biotechnology) by Rajni Hatti-Kaul