By Howard Thomas Foster II, Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund, Lisa D. O'Steen
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Extra resources for Archaeology of the Lower Muskogee Creek Indians, 1715-1836
Cazithto may be the same Casiste that was mentioned by the De Soto chroniclers in 1540. The 1540 Casiste has been estimated to have been located to the west in what is now central Alabama, however (Hudson 1994: 87). The discrepancy between the location of the 1540 location of Cussetuh (Casiste) and the seventeenth-century location of Cussetuh (Cazithto) is part of the justi¤cation for a west-to-east migration into the Chattahoochee River valley. Cazithto (later Cussetuh), Cabita (later Cowetuh), and Colomme (later Kolomi) spoke Muskogee languages, whereas the majority of the remaining towns probably spoke Hitchiti languages (Hann 1996:66–67).
We know that during the seventeenth century the Spanish traded with Indians living in the Apalachicoli province (Hann 1996:68). That province has the name that the Spanish attributed to the Indian towns distributed along what is now called the Chattahoochee River. The earliest town list for the Chattahoochee River region was made in 1675 by Bishop Gabriel Díaz Vara Calderón. It lists, in order from south to north, Chicahuti, Sabacola, Oconi, Apalachicoli, Ilapi, Tacusa, Usachi, Ocmulgui, Ahachito, Cazithto, Colomme, Cabita, and Cuchiguali (Hann 1988:362).
In other words, how valid is our method of tracing names (Knight 1994a:378)? The late-eighteenth-century town of Nuyaka was founded by a population of people from a town called Tote-pauf-cau (Foster 2003a:45s). The name of the Upper Creek town of Tallo-wau mu-chos-see means “new town” but was formerly called Took-au-batchee tal-lau-has-see (Tukabatchee Old Town) and implies that this “new town” was the former location of Tukabatchee. Recent studies by Douglas Hurt (2000), Karen Booker et al. (1992), and Patricia Wickman (1999:57, 74–78, 158) may begin to address these issues of naming conventions.
Archaeology of the Lower Muskogee Creek Indians, 1715-1836 by Howard Thomas Foster II, Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund, Lisa D. O'Steen